Heroin is a type of opioid drug that is partly manmade and partly natural. It is made from morphine, a psychoactive (mind-altering) substance that occurs naturally in the resin of the opium poppy plant. Heroin’s color and look depend on how it is made and what else it may be mixed with. It can be white or brown powder or a black, sticky substance called “black tar heroin.”
Heroin is becoming an increasing concern in areas where lots of people abuse prescription opioid painkillers, like OxyContin and Vicodin. They may turn to heroin since it produces a similar high but is cheaper and easier to obtain. Nearly half of young people who inject heroin surveyed in recent studies reported abusing prescription opioids before starting to use heroin.
The changes that take place in the brain from heroin use have effects on the rest of the body. Some of these effects are quite serious. In 2011, more than 250,000 visits to a hospital emergency department involved heroin.2
Heroin use can cause:
- Feeling sick to the stomach and throwing up
- Severe itching
- Slowed (or even stopped) breathing
- Increased risk of HIV and hepatitis (a liver disease) through shared needles
- Coma—a deep state of unconsciousness
In addition to the effects of the drug itself, heroin bought on the street often contains a mix of substances, some of which can be toxic and can clog the blood vessels leading to the lungs, liver, kidney, or brain. This can cause permanent damage to those organs.